Shopper footfall plunged on Wednesday as retailers suffered the effects of widespread strike action.
Mass walkouts caused an 11.1% fall in footfall to noon compared with the same day last week, according to figures from analysts MRI Springboard.
Retail parks have been the hardest hit with a drop in footfall of 21.3% compared with last Wednesday, while city centres suffered a 9.6% fall.
The exception was central London, where footfall rose by 7.1%.
The disputes are over pay, jobs, pensions, conditions and cuts, with warnings of more strikes if they are not resolved.
Diane Wehrle, insights director at MRI Springboard, said: “Footfall has been severely impacted by the strikes today, with a decline in footfall from last Wednesday of 11.1%.
“This decline is even more significant than usual as it comes on the back of reduced footfall last Wednesday, when customer activity declined by 13.9% from the week before due to severe weather.”